Immunotherapies based on immune checkpoint blockade are highly effective in a subset of patients. An ongoing challenge is the identification of biomarkers that predict which patients will benefit from these therapies. Aneuploidy, also known as somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), is widespread in cancer and is posited to drive tumorigenesis. Analyzing 12 human cancer types, we find that, for most, highly aneuploid tumors show reduced expression of markers of cytotoxic infiltrating immune cells, especially CD8(+) T cells, and increased expression of cell proliferation markers. Different types of SCNAs predict the proliferation and immune signatures, implying distinct underlying mechanisms. Using published data from two clinical trials of immune checkpoint blockade therapy for metastatic melanoma, we found that tumor aneuploidy inversely correlates with patient survival. Together with other tumor characteristics such as tumor mutational load, aneuploidy may thus help identify patients most likely to respond to immunotherapy.
The Ludwig Center at Harvard Medical School brings together investigators from across Harvard to develop strategies to overcome barriers that limit the efficacy of current and emerging cancer therapies.